Following independence the first article of U. Constitution guaranteed freedom of the press and speech and the American press grew rapidly following the American Revolution. The press became a key support element to the country's political parties but also organized religious institutions. During the 19th century newspapers began to expand and appear outside eastern U. From the s onward the penny press began to play a major role in American journalism and technological advancements such as the telegraph and faster printing presses in the s helped expand the press of the nation as it experienced rapid economic and demographic growth.
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By major newspapers had become profitable powerhouses of advocacy, muckraking and sensationalism , along with serious, and objective news-gathering. During the early 20th Century, prior to rise of television, the average American read several newspapers per-day. Starting in the s changes in technology again morphed the nature of American journalism as radio and later, television , began to play increasingly important roles. In the late 20th Century, much of American journalism became housed in big media conglomerates principally owned by the media moguls , Ted Turner and Rupert Murdoch.
With the coming of digital journalism in the 21st Century, all newspapers faced a business crisis as readers turned to the internet for sources and advertisers followed them. New social media technologies such as Twitter have proved to be a major source and venue for American journalism in the early 21st century. Harris had strong trans-Atlantic connections intended to publish a regular weekly newspaper along the lines of those that existed in London, but he did not get prior approval and his paper was suppressed after a single edition.
This time, the founder was John Campbell, the local postmaster, and his paper proclaimed that it was "published by authority. As the colonies grew rapidly in the 18th century, new papers appeared in port cities along the East Coast, usually started by master printers seeking a sideline. Among them was James Franklin , founder of the The New England Courant , where he employed his younger brother, Benjamin Franklin , as a printer's apprentice. Like many other colonial newspapers, it was aligned with party interests.
Ben Franklin was first published in his brother's newspaper, under the pseudonym Silence Dogood, in , and even his brother did not know at first.modernpsychtraining.com/cache/messages/zoqik-locate-a.php
Journalism in the Nineteenth Century
Pseudonymous publishing represented a common practice of newspapers of that time of protecting writers from retribution from government officials and others they criticized, often to the point of what would be considered libel today. The content included advertising of newly landed products, and locally produced news items, usually based on commercial and political events.
Editors exchanged their papers, and frequently reprinted news from other cities. Essays and letters to the editor, often anonymous, provided opinions on current issues. While religious news was thin, writers typically interpreted good news in terms of God's favor, and bad news as evidence of His wrath. The fate of criminals was often cast as cautionary tales warning of the punishment for sin.
Ben Franklin moved to Philadelphia in and took over the Pennsylvania Gazette the following year. Ben Franklin expanded his business by essentially franchising other printers in other cities, who published their own newspapers.
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By , 14 weekly newspapers were published in the six largest colonies. The largest and most successful of these could be published up to three times per week. The Stamp Act of taxed paper, and the burden of the tax fell on printers. They led the successful fight to repeal the tax. His Crisis essays first appeared in the newspaper press starting in December, , when he warned:. When the war for independence began in , 37 weekly newspapers were in operation; 20 survived the war, and 33 new ones started up. The British blockade sharply curtailed the importation of paper, ink, and new equipment; one result was a reduced size and delays in publication.
When the war ended in , there were 35 newspapers with a combined circulation of about 40, copies copies per week, and an actual readership in the hundreds of thousands. They played a major role in defining the grievances of the colonists against the British government in the era, and in supporting the American Revolution.
Every week the Maryland Gazette of Annapolis promoted the Patriot cause and also reflected informed Patriot viewpoints. When he died in , his widow Anne Catherine Hoof Green became the first woman to hold a top job at an American newspaper. During the war, contributors debated the issue of the established church, use of coercion against neutrals and Loyalists, the meaning of Paine's "Common Sense", and the confiscation of Loyalist property. Much attention was devoted to the details of military campaigns, typically with an upbeat optimistic tone.
In peacetime criticism might lead to a loss of valuable printing contract, but in wartime the government needed the newspapers. Furthermore, there were enough different state governments and political factions that editors could be protected by their friends. When Thomas Paine lost his patronage job with Congress because of a letter he published, the state government soon hired him.
Newspapers flourished in the new republic — by , there were about being published — and tended to be very partisan about the form of the new federal government, which was shaped by successive Federalist or Republican presidencies. Newspapers directed much abuse toward various politicians, and the eventual duel between Alexander Hamilton and Aaron Burr was fueled by controversy in newspaper pages.
By , both parties sponsored national networks of weekly newspapers, which attacked each other vehemently. The most heated rhetoric came in debates over the French Revolution, especially the Jacobin Terror of —94 when the guillotine was used daily. Nationalism was a high priority, and the editors fostered an intellectual nationalism typified by the Federalist effort to stimulate a national literary culture through their clubs and publications in New York and Philadelphia, and Noah Webster 's efforts to simplify and Americanize the language.
Larger printing presses, the telegraph, and other technological innovations allowed newspapers to print thousands of copies, boost circulation, and increase revenue. In the largest cities some papers were politically independent. But most of the, especially in smaller cities, were closely tied to the political parties, which used them for communication and campaigning. Their editorials explained the party position on all current issues, and damned the opposition.
The first newspaper to fit the 20th century style of a newspaper was the New York Herald , founded in and published by James Gordon Bennett, Sr. It was politically independent, and became the first newspaper to have city staff covering regular beats and spot news , along with regular business and Wall Street coverage. In Bennett also organized the first foreign correspondent staff of six men in Europe and assigned domestic correspondents to key cities, including the first reporter to regularly cover Congress.
The leading partisan newspaper was the New York Tribune , which began publishing in and was edited by Horace Greeley.
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It was the first newspaper to gain national prominence; by , it shipped thousands of copies of its daily and weekly editions to subscribers throughout the door. Greeley also organized a professional news staff and embarked on frequent publishing crusades for causes he believed in.
The Gilded Age Press, 1865-1900 (History of American Journalism,)
The Tribune was the first newspaper, in , to use the linotype machine , invented by Ottmar Mergenthaler , which rapidly increased the speed and accuracy with which type could be set. It established the principle of balanced reporting in high-quality writing. Its prominence emerged in the 20th century. As the country and its inhabitants explored and settled further west the American landscape changed. In order to supply these new pioneers of western territories with of information publishing was forced to expanded past the major presses of Washington D. Most frontier newspapers were creations of the influx of people and wherever a new town sprang up a newspaper was sure to follow.
Many of the newspapers and journals published in these Midwestern developments were weekly papers. Homesteaders would watch their cattle or farms during the week and then on their weekend journey readers would collect their papers while they did their business in town.
One reason that so many newspapers were started during the conquest of the West was because homesteaders were required to publish notices of their land claims in local newspapers. Some of these papers died out after the land rushes ended, or when the railroad bypassed the town.
The American Civil War had a profound effect on American journalism. Large newspapers hired war correspondents to cover the battlefields, with more freedom than correspondents today enjoy. These reporters used the new telegraph and expanding railways to move news reports faster to their newspapers. The cost of sending telegraphs helped create a new concise or "tight" style of writing which became the standard for journalism through the next century.
The Gilded Age press, 1865-1900 / Ted Curtis Smythe.
The ever-growing demand for urban newspapers to provide more news led to the organization of the first of the wire services, a cooperative between six large New York City-based newspapers led by David Hale, the publisher of the Journal of Commerce , and James Gordon Bennett, to provide coverage of Europe for all of the papers together.
What became the Associated Press received the first cable transmission ever of European news through the trans-Atlantic cable in The New York dailies continued to redefine journalism. James Bennett's Herald , for example, didn't just write about the disappearance of David Livingstone in Africa; they sent Henry Stanley to find him, which he did, in Uganda. Ask Seller a Question. Book Condition: Used: Good. Smythe presents a brief, sweeping survey of American journalism in the so-called Gilded Age. Each chapter examines the press in a specific time period and evaluates the changes that were taking place Upper-division undergraduates through faculty.
Though retaining some of its politically partisan heritage, the American press underwent a dramatic transformation in the post-Civil War years. Upper-division undergraduates through faculty.? Visit Seller's Storefront. Please contact me if you are not satisfied with your order in any manner. I always list book by ISBN only and buyer is assured of correct edition, correct author and correct format of book. Name of your business and form of legal entity: Ami Ventures Inc. Orders usually ship within 1 business days. If your book order is heavy or oversized, we may contact you to let you know extra shipping is required.