The bombing, in , killed ninety-one people and injured forty-six, making it the most deadly attack during the Mandate era. This attack was sharply condemned by the organized leadership of the Yishuv, and further widened the gulf between David Ben-Gurion 's Hagana and Begin's Irgun.
Following the bombing, Ben-Gurion called Irgun an "enemy of the Jewish people". Operating in the British Mandate of Palestine in the s, Izz ad-Din al-Qassam — organized and established the Black Hand , a Palestinian nationalist militia. He recruited and arranged military training for peasants , and by had enlisted between and men. Black Hand cells were equipped with bombs and firearms, which they used to kill Jews.
Terrorism in History | Journal of Conflict Studies
The Izz ad-Din al-Qassam Brigades , the military wing of Hamas , as well as the rockets they developed, take their names after Qassam. Lehi Lohamei Herut Yisrael , a. After Israel's founding, Lehi formally dissolved and its members became integrated into the Israeli Defense Forces. Some of the tactics of the guerrilla, partisan, and resistance movements organised and supplied by the Allies during World War II , according to historian M. Foot, can be considered terrorist. On the eve of D-Day , the SOE organised with the French Resistance the complete destruction of the rail  and communication infrastructure of western France  the largest coordinated attack of its kind in history  [ full citation needed ] Allied supreme commander Dwight Eisenhower later wrote that "the disruption of enemy rail communications, the harassing of German road moves and the continual and increasing strain placed on German security services throughout occupied Europe by the organised forces of Resistance, played a very considerable part in our complete and final victory".
The work of the SOE received recognition in with a memorial in London, however there are differing views on the morality of the SOE's actions; the British military historian John Keegan wrote:. We must recognise that our response to the scourge of terrorism is compromised by what we did through SOE. The justification That we had no other means of striking back at the enemy Futile to argue that we were a democracy and Hitler a tyrant.
Means besmirch ends. SOE besmirched Britain. After World War II, largely successful anti-colonial campaigns were launched against the collapsing European empires, as many World War II resistance groups became militantly anti-colonial. The Viet Minh , for example, which had fought against the Japanese, now fought against the returning French colonists.
In the s, inspired by Mao's Chinese revolution of and Castro's Cuban revolution of , national independence movements often fused nationalist and socialist impulses. In the late s and s violent left wing and revolutionary groups were on the rise, sympathizing with Third World guerrilla movements and seeking to spark anti-capitalist revolts. Throughout the Cold War , both the United States and the Soviet Union made extensive use of violent nationalist organizations to carry on a war by proxy. For example, Soviet and Chinese military advisers provided training and support to the Viet Cong during the Vietnam War.
Founded in as a nationalist social-welfare and political movement in British-controlled Egypt, the Muslim Brotherhood began to attack British soldiers and police stations in the late s. The FLN would establish control over a rural village and coerce its peasants to execute any French loyalists among them. This uprising, and the heavy-handed response by the French, convinced many Algerians to support the FLN and the independence movement. Fatah was organized as a Palestinian nationalist group in , and exists today as a political party in Palestine.
In it joined the Palestine Liberation Organization PLO , an umbrella organization for secular Palestinian nationalist groups formed in The PLO began its own armed operations in All the athletes and five Black September operatives died during a gun battle with the West German police in what later became known as the Munich massacre. In the Ma'alot massacre 22 Israeli high-school students, aged 14 to 16 from Safed were killed by three members of the Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine.
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The group originated to oppose capitalism and what it perceived as western exploitation of Iran under the Shah. The group is suspected [ by whom? The group renounced violence in but remains a proscribed terror-organization in Iran and in the United States. The EU, however, has removed the group from its terror list. At the time Turkey was in political turmoil, and Hagopian believed that the time was right to avenge the Armenians who died during the Armenian Genocide and to force the Turkish government to cede the territory of Wilsonian Armenia to establish a nation state also incorporating the Armenian SSR.
Nine people died and 82 were injured. Founder Abdullah Ocalan was inspired by the Maoist theory of people's war , and like Algeria's FLN he advocated the use of compliance terror. In the PKK transformed itself into a paramilitary organisation and launched conventional attacks as well as bombings against Turkish governmental installations. He was tried in Turkey and sentenced to life imprisonment. The PKK has since gone through a series of name changes. In ETA operatives killed Franco's apparent successor, Admiral Luis Carrero Blanco , by planting an underground bomb under his habitual parking-spot outside a Madrid church.
Between and , during a period known as the Troubles , the group conducted an armed campaign , including bombings, gun attacks, assassinations and even a mortar attack on 10 Downing Street. Inspired by Che Guevara , Maoist socialism, and the Vietcong , the group sought to raise awareness of the Vietnamese and Palestinian independence movements through kidnappings, taking embassies hostage, bank robberies, assassinations, bombings, and attacks on U.
The group became arguably best known for 's " German Autumn ". The group carried out a series of bombings and kidnappings until the arrests of Curcio and Franceschini in the mids. Their successor as leader , Mario Moretti , led the group toward more militarized and violent actions, including the kidnapping of former Italian Prime Minister Aldo Moro on March 16, Moro was killed 56 days later.
This led to an all-out assault on the group by Italian law-enforcement and security forces and condemnation from Italian left-wing radicals and even from imprisoned ex-leaders of the Brigades. Members of these groups carried out a handful of assassinations before almost all were arrested in Laporte was killed a week later. In Colombia several paramilitary and guerrilla groups formed during the s and afterwards. While the ELN and FARC were originally left wing revolutionary groups and the AUC was originally a right-wing paramilitary, all have conducted numerous attacks on civilians and civilian infrastructure and engaged in the drug trade.
The U. Over the decade that followed the group used bombings and targeted killings of civilians and police in pursuit of an independent Puerto Rico. The Weather Underground a. Weathermen leaders, inspired by China's Maoists , the Black Panthers , and the student revolts in France , sought to raise awareness of its revolutionary anti-capitalist and anti- Vietnam War platform by destroying symbols of government power. From to the Weathermen bombed corporate offices, police stations, and Washington government sites such as the Pentagon.
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- Definition, History, and Types of Terrorism?
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After the end of the Vietnam War in , most of the group disbanded. The Japanese Red Army was founded by Fusako Shigenobu in Japan in and attempted to overthrow the Japanese government and start a world revolution. Two of the three attackers then killed themselves with grenades. In Kenya, because of the seeming ongoing failure of the Kenyan African Union to obtain political reforms from the British through peaceful means, radical activists within the KAU set up a splinter group and organised a more militant kind of nationalism.
The Mau Mau carried out attacks on political opponents, loyalist villages, raiding white settler farms and destroying livestock. The British colonial administration declared a state of emergency and British forces were sent to Kenya. Founded in , Umkhonto we Sizwe MK was the military wing of the African National Congress ; it waged a guerrilla campaign against the South African apartheid regime and was responsible for many bombings. The South African government subsequently banned the group after classifying it as a terrorist organization. MK's first leader was Nelson Mandela , who was tried and imprisoned for the group's acts.
In the s and s, Islamic militancy in pursuit of religious and political goals increased, [ citation needed ] many militants drawing inspiration from Iran's Islamic Revolution. This period also saw the rise of what is sometimes categorized as Single issue terrorism. If terrorism is the extension of domestic politics by other means, just as war is for diplomacy, then this represents the extension of pressure groups into violent action. Notable examples that grow in this period are Anti-abortion terrorism and Environmental terrorism. The Contras were a counter-revolutionary militia formed in to oppose Nicaragua's Sandinista government.
The Catholic Institute for International Relations asserted the following about contra operating procedures in "The record of the contras in the field The April 19, , Oklahoma City bombing was directed at the U. Murrah Federal Building in downtown Oklahoma City claimed lives and left over people injured. Inspired by Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini and the Iranian revolution , the group originally sought an Islamic revolution in Lebanon [ citation needed ] and has long fought for the withdrawal of Israeli forces from Lebanon.
Led by Sheikh Sayyed Hassan Nasrallah since , the group has captured Israeli soldiers and carried out missile attacks and suicide bombings against Israeli targets. Egyptian Islamic Jihad a. The group was formed in as an umbrella organization for militant student groups which were formed after the leadership of the Muslim Brotherhood renounced violence. In , the group assassinated Egyptian president Anwar Sadat. On November 17, , in what became known as the Luxor massacre , it attacked tourists at the Temple of Hatshepsut Deir el-Bahri ; six men dressed as police officers machine-gunned 58 Japanese and European vacationers and four Egyptians.
Kennedy International Airport , was destroyed mid flight over the Scottish town of Lockerbie , killing people, including 11 on the ground. On January 31, , Libyan Abdelbaset al-Megrahi was convicted by a panel of three Scottish judges of bombing the flight, and was sentenced to 27 years imprisonment. In , Libya offered financial compensation to victims' families in exchange for lifting of UN and U. In Megrahi was granted leave to appeal against his conviction, and in August was released on compassionate grounds by the Scottish executive due to his terminal cancer.
The first Palestinian suicide attack took place in when a member of the Palestinian Islamic Jihad ignited a bomb onboard Tel Aviv bus , killing 16 people. Sheikh Ahmed Yassin , Abdel Aziz al-Rantissi and Mohammad Taha of the Palestinian wing of Egypt's Muslim Brotherhood had created Hamas in , at the beginning of the First Intifada , an uprising against Israeli rule in the Palestinian Territories which mostly consisted of civil disobedience but sometimes escalated into violence.
Hamas is designated as a terrorist organization by the European Union ,   Canada,  Israel, Japan,      and the United States. It is not regarded as a terrorist organization by Iran, Russia,  Norway,  Switzerland,  Brazil,  Turkey,  China,     and Qatar. On February 25, , Baruch Goldstein , an American-born Israeli physician, perpetrated the Cave of the Patriarchs massacre in the city of Hebron , Goldstein shot and killed between 30 and 54 Muslim worshippers inside the Ibrahimi Mosque within the Cave of the Patriarchs , and wounded another to Aum Shinrikyo , now known as Aleph, was a Japanese religious group founded by Shoko Asahara in as a yogic meditation group.
None were voted in, and the group began to militarize. Between and , the group attempted several apparently unsuccessful violent attacks using the methods of biological warfare , using botulin toxin and anthrax spores. In May , Asahara and other senior leaders were arrested and the group's membership rapidly decreased. In , Air India Flight flying from Canada was blown up by a bomb while in Irish airspace, killing people, including Canadian citizens, mostly of Indian birth or descent, and 22 Indians.
The crash occurred within an hour of the fatal Narita Airport Bombing which also originated from Canada without the passenger for the bag that exploded on the ground. Evidence from the explosions, witnesses and wiretaps of militants pointed to an attempt to actually blow up two airliners simultaneously by members of the Babbar Khalsa Khalistan movement militant group based in Canada to punish India for attacking the Golden Temple.
The Iranian Embassy siege took place in , after a group of six armed men stormed the Iranian embassy in South Kensington , London. This response set the tone for how Western governments would respond to terrorism. Replacing an era of negotiation with one of military intervention. Chechen separatists, led by Shamil Basayev , carried out several attacks on Russian targets between and When Russian special forces attempted to free the hostages, civilians and 25 Russian troops were killed.
Major events after the September 11 attacks in include the Moscow Theatre Siege , the Istanbul bombings , the Madrid train bombings , the Beslan school hostage crisis , the London bombings , the October New Delhi bombings , the Mumbai Hotel Siege , and the Norway attacks. The Moscow theatre hostage crisis was the seizure of a crowded Moscow theatre on 23 October by some 40 to 50 armed Chechens who claimed allegiance to the Islamist militant separatist movement in Chechnya. They took hostages and demanded the withdrawal of Russian forces from Chechnya and an end to the Second Chechen War.
The siege was officially led by Movsar Barayev. After a two-and-a-half-day siege, Russian Spetsnaz forces pumped an unknown chemical agent thought to be fentanyl, 3-methylfentanyl , into the building's ventilation system and raided it. All but a few of the hostages who died were killed by the gas pumped into the theatre,    and many condemned the use of the gas as heavy handed.
On September 1, , in what became known as the Beslan school hostage crisis , 32 Chechen separatists took 1, children and adults hostage at Beslan 's School Number One. When Russian authorities did not comply with the rebel demands that Russian forces withdraw from Chechnya, 20 adult male hostages were shot. After two days of stalled negotiations, Russian special forces stormed the building. In the ensuing melee, over hostages died, along with 19 Russian servicemen and all but perhaps one of the rebels.
Basayev is believed to have participated in organizing the attack. The explosions killed people and wounded 1, It was concluded that the bombs were carried on the trains hidden in backpacks, While many went off three were found later that did not detonate. ETA and al Qaeda were the original suspects cited by the Spanish government. On the morning of Thursday, 7 July , four Islamist extremists separately detonated three bombs in quick succession aboard London Underground trains across the city and, later, a fourth on a double-decker bus in Tavistock Square. Fifty-two civilians were killed and over more were injured in the attacks.
Later a dozen unexploded bombs were found in a car located in North London. In Norway in two sequential lone wolf terrorist attacks by right-wing extremist Anders Behring Breivik were carried out against the government, the civilian population, and a Workers' Youth League AUF -run summer camp in Norway on 22 July The attacks claimed a total of 77 lives. The first part of the attack was a van bomb in Oslo. The van was placed in front of the office block housing the office of Prime Minister and other government buildings. The explosion killed eight people and injured at least people, twelve of them seriously.
He followed this attack by impersonating a police officer to access the island on which the AUF summer camp was being held and proceeded to go on a shooting spree that killed 69 people. In the British government branded the killing of a serviceman in a Woolwich street, a terrorist attack. One of his attackers made political statements which were later broadcast with blood still on his hands from the attack. They were later tried and found guilty of murder. A fifth shooting attack did not result in any fatalities.
Numerous other smaller incidents of attacks on mosques have been reported, but have not yet been directly linked to the attacks. The group that claims responsibility for the attacks, Al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula , claimed that the attack had been planned for years ahead. During the attack, the gunmen shouted " Allahu akbar " "God is great" in Arabic and also "the Prophet is avenged".
Another gunman also shot a police officer on 8 January and took hostages the next day, at a kosher supermarket near the Porte de Vincennes. Three terrorists were killed, along with four hostages who died in the Vincennes supermarket before the intervention; some other hostages were injured. They killed a total of more than citizens. Hostages were taken in the concert hall "Le Bataclan" for three hours, and ninety were killed before the special police entered.
On the morning of 22 March , three coordinated suicide bombings occurred in Belgium : two at Brussels Airport in Zaventem , and one at Maalbeek metro station in central Brussels. Thirty-two civilians and three perpetrators were killed, and more than people were injured. Another bomb was found during a search of the airport. The bombing killed seventeen U. On September 11, , nineteen men affiliated with al-Qaeda hijacked four commercial passenger jets all bound for California, crashing two of them into the World Trade Center in New York City , the third into the Pentagon in Arlington County, Virginia , and the fourth originally intended to target Washington, D.
Capitol into an open field near Shanksville, Pennsylvania , after a revolt by the plane's passengers.
The United States responded to the attacks by launching the War on Terror. Specifically, on October 7, , it invaded Afghanistan to depose the Taliban , which had harbored al-Qaeda terrorists. On October 26, , the U. Many countries followed with similar legislation. Under the Obama administration, the U. This campaign eliminated much of al-Qaeda's most senior members, including a strike by Seal Team Six that resulted in the death of Osama Bin Laden in On Israel's northern border, after its unilateral withdrawal from southern Lebanon in May , Hezbollah launched numerous Katyusha rocket attacks against non-civilian and civilian areas within northern Israel.
It has committed numerous attacks within Iran, stating that it is fighting for the rights of the Sunni minority there. In the group attempted to assassinate Iran's president, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad. Iran and other sources accuse the group of being a front for or supported by other nations, in particular the U.
As the Islamic state of Syria and Iraq increases in size and power their attacks are affecting all parts of the world even in their own back yard of Turkey. Taking place in Istanbul a suicide bomber once again detonated a car bomb killing 4 people and injuring No extremist group took responsibility for the attack but the attacker Mehmet Ozturk was linked to have ties with ISIS.
This was just days after the car bomb attack in Turkeys capital of Ankara killing 37 people. Since the attacks Israel has requested that its citizens not travel to Turkey unless its necessary. On December 27, two time elected Pakistani Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto was assassinated during a gathering she was having with her supporters. A suicide bomber detonated a bomb along with other extremists against her shooting off guns killing the prime minister and 14 other people.
She was immediately rushed to the hospital and was pronounced dead. The responsibility of her death falls on the president of the time Pervez Musharraf who also was the ex- military chief, She had several conversations with Musharraf about upping her security due to the increase of death threats she was receiving and he denied her request.
Although AL-Qaeda took responsibility for her death it is seen in the eye of the people as former President's Pervez Musharraf's fault for not taking her concerns seriously. However, during his trial he denies that no conversation happened between him and Benzair Bhutto about the security of her life. The Mumbai attacks were more than ten coordinated shooting and bombing attacks across Mumbai , India's largest city, by Lashkar-e-Taiba , a Pakistani Islamic terrorist organization with ties to ISI , Pakistan's secret service. The six main targets were. On January 14, a series of terrorist attacks took place in Jakarta, Indonesia resulting in 8 dead.
The responsibility of these attacks were claimed by ISIS Counter terrorism has named this type of attack 'Marauding Terrorist Firearms Attack' because of the fast reaction needed by local policemen to stop the gunfire attack from the terrorists. Indonesia is home of the "largest regional terror groups" housing seven Islamist extremist groups. Leaving the thoughts that ISIS is trying to establish a satellite city in Indonesia, due to the fact that it has the largest Muslim population. Although ISIS branches have not yet reached the land of Southeast Asia in big masses, there is the fear that it is only a matter of time until Indonesias small extremist groups grow in masses once direct contact with ISIS is made.
Once contact is established local terror groups will quickly mobilize to carry out the tasks that ISIS asks of them. ISIS will turn to Southeast Asia because it is only evident that they will lose control of the middle east. This resulted in several of the first fatalities attributed to a bioterror attack. The more recent terrorist attack in the United States have included the San Bernardino attack ,  the Bombing of Boston Marathon by Islamic terrorists, the shooting of police officers in sniper ambushes by members of Black Lives Matter movement, and the shooting of multiple black parishioners at church and car attack on anti-fascist protesters in Charlottesville by right-wing extremists and white supremacists.
There have been calls by some analysts to describe violence committed by incels as terrorism. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 20 September Terrorism Definitions History Incidents.ghosimtapar.gq
The History of the Word 'Terrorism'
By ideology. Violent extremism Ethnic violence Militia movement Resistance movement. Methods Tactics. Terrorist groups. Designated terrorist groups Charities accused of ties to terrorism. Response to terrorism. Counter-terrorism International conventions Anti-terrorism legislation Terrorism insurance. See also: The Gunpowder Plot. Foot , who wrote several official histories of SOE. See also: Jewish insurgency in Palestine , —39 Arab revolt in Palestine , and List of killings and massacres in Mandatory Palestine. This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it.
October This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. September Learn how and when to remove this template message. BBC News. Retrieved This would end the argument that one man's terrorist is another man's freedom fighter Retrieved 10 January — via NYTimes.
Miller Cambridge University Press. Retrieved 27 November Berkeley: University of California Press, The Castles of the Assassins. New York: Linden Press, The Assassin Legends: Myths of the Isma'ilis. London: I. Tauris, University of Pennsylvania Press, Retrieved 10 January Retrieved 10 January — via www. The New York Times. Retrieved May 4, A History of Terrorism.
Transaction Publishers. The Canadian Encyclopedia. Retrieved September 9, The Washington Post. The Guardian UK. Retrieved February 25, December 1, New York Times. Archived from the original PDF on New York: Harper Perennial, Inside Terrorism. New York: Columbia University Press, Page Political Terrorism: An Interdisciplinary Approach. New York: Peter Lang Press, New York: Picador, The Macedonian Conflict. Princeton University Press, Palgrave Macmillan.
Retrieved 25 February — via Google Books. Retrieved 25 February Avon, Archived from the original on 8 December Ithaca Press, David Lloyd George:a biography.
Edited by Carola Dietze and Claudia Verhoeven
Ruud, Sergei A. Stalin: Who Was Worse? New York Review of Books. Arch Stalinist Terror: New Perspectives. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press published Nevskii, former head of the Lenin Library, directly accused Bukharin of leading a 'terrorist center. Mick: The Real Michael Collins. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, Tauris, p. Although largely forgotten, immigration law has long served as a way to counter terrorism in the United States.
Exclusionary immigration legislation is appealing because it allows the federal government to appease domestic constituents, and to externalize terrorist threats,labeling them as foreign. Militant and extremist ideologies, however, have rarely been detained at the border. Drawing by T. Dart Walker of the McKinley Assassination. Czolgosz proclaimed himself an anarchist, and by doing so, pledged allegiance to a revolutionary doctrine emanating from Europe. The subsequent Immigration Act of , better known as the Anarchist Exclusion Act, targeted a political belief rather than conduct, and banned those who advocated the violent overthrow of government.
Congress continued to expand the Immigration Act of , despite its limited enforcement. In , only one alleged anarchist was deported from the United States. The anti-anarchist provisions of U. By this time, foreign born residents who espoused political beliefs considered subversive or dangerous, or who affiliated with organizations or groups that supported or printed anarchist principles were subject to arrest and deportation by federal immigration officers. The Home of Attorney General Palmer after a bombing. A series of spectacular bombings ushered in the Red Scare.
In April , a parcel bomb exploded in the house of Georgia senator Thomas Hardwick, co-author of the Immigration Act of , injuring his maid and wife. Federal postal authorities found 36 package bombs intended for prominent politicians, judges, and industrialists. Two months later, on June 2, , a coordinated attack rocked eight American cities, as bombs exploded simultaneously in New York, Boston, Newtonville Massachusetts , Philadelphia, Paterson, Washington, Cleveland, and Pittsburgh. The newly formed Radical Division took charge, and under the direction of a young and ambitious lawyer, J.
Edgar Hoover, focused on deporting members of foreign left-wing organizations. On November 7, federal agents arrested hundreds of Russian immigrants connected to the Union of Russian Workers. The Justice Department next turned to its primary target among radical groups — the Communist and the Communist Labor parties. On January 2, the Justice Department launched a second dragnet. Agents raided homes and offices of alleged communists in over 30 cities, arresting thousands. Respected lawyers criticized the Justice Department for its violation of civil liberties, including warrantless arrests, forging evidence, using agent provocateurs, and distributing political propaganda.
As fears of the red menace faded, the Wall Street bombing of September ripped through the financial district of downtown Manhattan and left thirty-eight people dead and wounded hundreds more.
This was the worst terrorist attack in American history, in terms of persons killed and wounded, until the Oklahoma City bombing.