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View HP Data for:. Midcourse Review Data Are In! Related Topic Areas. Adolescent Health.

Family Planning. Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Health. Sexually Transmitted Diseases. Learn More. References 1 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Find us on:. Enter your email for updates:. A Federal Government Web site managed by the U. These visits include:. The intent of outreach and linkage to care for substance users is to support the plan to End the Epidemic through the provision of outreach and HIV, Hepatitis C and STI testing services. Funded providers identify HIV-positive substance users not currently diagnosed, substance users previously diagnosed but out of care, and individuals at high risk of acquiring HIV infection because of their substance use and co-occurring conditions.

The intent of the program is to link active substance users to appropriate medical and behavioral health services. Programs provide enhanced outreach and linkage to care for active substance users not currently in drug treatment through the following services:. Women affected by HIV, experience poverty, substance use, domestic violence, mental illness, family disruption, and are often survivors of trauma. Traditionally, women have the primary responsibility for care of their children. Concerns regarding family and children often take precedence over their own health issues.

In addition to addressing their health care concerns, HIV-positive women often face compounding issues such as custody arrangements, daily child care, disclosure, elder care, stigma and discrimination. For women with HIV, gynecologic and reproductive health services, including family planning, must be coordinated with adult HIV primary care.

Mayo Clinic HIV Clinic

The initiative seeks improved access to care and a reduction in barriers within the health care system, with the overall goal of improving health outcomes through support and adherence to treatment regimens. In addition, a paramount goal of this initiative is to reduce the risk of perinatal HIV transmission. Multicultural, multidisciplinary teams combine HIV specialty care, mental health counseling, prevention with positives, medical case management and other HIV-related support services to address the complex medical and social issues faced by women and HIV-affected families.

The model ensures ongoing communication among all team members and community partners that promotes coordination of services and resources. All efforts contribute to the goal of timely interventions and include aggressive engagement and re-engagement, support for addressing family issues, optimal early treatment and continuous care.

Other Health Issues of Special Concern for People Living with HIV |

These services are especially important for HIV-positive postpartum women who are at-risk for postpartum depression and more likely to delay returning to HIV care after delivery. With a lifetime of medical monitoring, treatment regimens and potentially life threatening illness, they are also confronted with the physical, cognitive, psychosocial and emotional challenges of adolescence.

Adolescent and young adult friendly interventions are needed to engage and maintain them in primary care, promote optimal health outcomes, and provide support for transition to adult service systems. Specialized Care Centers provide comprehensive and coordinated HIV and primary health care, medical case management and supportive services using a multidisciplinary team model.

Serving HIV-positive and high-risk youth, SCC programs utilize an approach that enhances the health and well-being of youth using a health literate model.

Herpes viruses

The primary intent of the SCC is to serve HIV-positive youth; however, programs also reach and provide low-threshold clinical services to high-risk adolescents and young adults who are MSM, transgender, or other young people at high risk e. High-risk youth receive psychosocial, medical and social services assessments and receive assisted referrals. High-risk youth who are not HIV-positive, or who choose not to test for HIV, are referred for ongoing primary care and navigated to other needed services. The stigma of HIV, possibly combined with mental illness, substance use, poverty, violence and other forms of trauma, may present further barriers to seeking help through health care settings.

Many youth engage in risky activities, such as drug and alcohol use, which often lead to sexual risk-taking. For high-risk youth, the frequency and intensity of risk-taking behavior contribute to an increased potential for HIV, STIs and unintended pregnancy, necessitating intensive program outreach and integrated risk reduction efforts.

Contributing factors related to high risk-taking behaviors may include multiple life stressors, such as exposure to violence, trauma, substance use, mental health issues or engaging in sex for money, drugs or life sustaining needs. An important focus of this model is to connect high-risk youth to ongoing primary health care and to needed psychosocial and supportive services e. Referrals for HIV-negative youth include ongoing primary care services and needed psychosocial services.

Dying from lack of medicines

Follow-up is provided on critical referrals e. Youth Access Programs provide low threshold clinical services to high-risk youth ages years in targeted and accessible community-based settings to meet their immediate health care and social service needs using a health literate program model.

Care for acute illness identified through medical examination is required. Services include immediate access to medications for STIs or other infections and contraceptives for those without insurance. In many cases, these needs must be met before or concurrent with addressing issues related to HIV testing and treatment. Youth social networks and social media are used as part of the outreach strategy.

Community partnerships with LGBT and adolescent-friendly health and supportive services providers are critical for facilitating access to the services needed at the point of entry into care. In addition to acceptable hours, methods to implement low threshold clinical services in community settings include:. Generally, six months is the recommended time frame for high-risk youth in the program. However, this may be extended for individuals who need additional time to successfully transition to a medical home, PrEP candidates not connected to primary care, or for clients with continued risk behavior that have not transitioned to an appropriate primary care provider.

However, including testing and treatment of syphilis is estimated to diagnose and treat more than , new syphilis cases in female sex workers and MSM in alone, but the long-term effects would depend on infection and re-infection rates. Therefore, the authors estimate that combining HIV testing and treatment with syphilis screening and treatment would be highly cost-effective, but adding PrEP to this intervention is not cost-effective.

Integration of HIV services with medication-assisted treatment could also avert one-third of all fatal opioid overdoses -- a major cause of mortality among people who inject drugs in Russia and globally. However, cost-effectiveness of this model was not estimated. No one can be left behind in our efforts to achieve sustainable health. The HIV response's multidisciplinary, inclusive approach, its engagement of civil society, emphasis on human rights and equality, galvanisation of scientific innovation, and global collaboration are important elements that could revitalise global health's aim for sustainable health for all.

He says: "The challenge is how to achieve this deeper integration without diluting what has made the HIV response so successful.

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If mainstreaming HIV programmes into other health services makes them less focused on outcomes, or diffuses engagement, we will go backwards. We invite these major institutions that are instrumental in driving the AIDS response to reconsider their purpose and their future. But the Global Fund should also think about how to broaden its response to include wider aspects of global health.

Materials provided by The Lancet.

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