In the s, Beck conducted the first rigorous study of any type of 'talk therapy'. He pitted cognitive therapy against the best antidepressant drug at the time — imipramine — in a prospective, randomized, controlled clinical trial designed to test how effectively these two approaches ameliorated symptoms of a particular disorder: depression. In this head-to-head comparison, cognitive therapy outperformed the drug after a treatment period of up to 12 weeks. Furthermore, the benefits persisted a year later. In contrast, the effectiveness of psychoanalysis, whose normal course is years, has not been proven, as it has not been subjected to this type of randomized, controlled study.
This work established cognitive therapy as a powerful clinical intervention and set a new standard for evaluating the effectiveness of any kind of psychotherapy. Numerous studies since then have reaffirmed that the approach is equal or better at combating depression than are antidepressant drugs; furthermore, it is better at preventing relapse.
Beck and his trainees spent the next three decades adapting cognitive therapy to treat additional problems—such as anxiety disorders, panic disorders, and social phobias—and testing its utility. As part of this enterprise, he developed powerful instruments with which to measure the severity of symptoms associated with various psychiatric illnesses.
Prior to this work, a dearth of techniques for measuring the severity of such disturbances hampered psychiatric research. Among his major achievements, Beck has made dramatic advances in helping people with suicidal urges, in part by providing a classification and assessment scheme for predicting suicidal behavior. Beck recognized that the feeling of hopelessness is crucial for evaluating suicidal patients. He developed a "hopelessness scale" — a series of simple questions — that measure the degree to which an individual feels as if current problems are solvable.
Beck and his colleagues have tracked patients for more than 30 years, and have found that this tool can indicate the likelihood of a person to commit suicide, particularly for individuals at high risk. In a seven-year study of outpatients, the test pinpointed 16 of the 17 people who killed themselves during that period; individuals who scored above a particular hopelessness rating were eleven times more likely to commit suicide than were the low scorers. Thus, the risk of hopeless patients eventually dying as a result of suicide was approximately the same as that of heavy smokers dying from lung cancer.
In , Beck and his colleagues published a paper that demonstrated the effectiveness of cognitive therapy for suicidal individuals. Participants in the cognitive-therapy group were almost 50 percent less likely than non-participants to attempt suicide during the month follow-up period. In the United States, more than 30, people die each year from suicide, making it the eleventh leading cause of death; among people between the ages of 15 and 24, it is the third biggest killer.
Worldwide, suicide is among the three leading causes of death among individuals between 15 and 44 years old. Because Beck has invented a simple tool with which to predict future suicidal behavior and a therapy that dramatically reduces attempts, his work has enormous potential for slashing those figures. Furthermore, it could tremendously benefit especially high-risk populations, such as those on college campuses. Cognitive therapy has become a mainstay in the practices of many mental health practitioners worldwide.
The American Psychiatric Association's guidelines state that cognitive behavioral therapy an offshoot of cognitive therapy is one of the two best-documented psychotherapies for treating major depression. Health systems in Europe recommend it for treating a number of common psychiatric disorders. If results are favorable, the government will expand the program and expects to save millions of dollars by helping people with mild to moderate depression get back to work and off disability benefits.
Beck's development of cognitive therapy and his discovery that it effectively treats serious mental illnesses has major public health significance. Countless individuals owe their sense of well-being — and their lives — to Beck's work. Beck, A. Thinking and depression II. Theory and therapy. Treatment of depression with cognitive therapy and amitriptyline.
Psychometric properties of the Beck Depression Inventory: Twenty-five years of evaluation. The current state of cognitive therapy: A year retrospective Arch. Brown, G. Cognitive therapy for the prevention of suicide attempts: A randomized controlled trial. Butler, A. The empirical status of cognitive behavioral therapy: A review of meta-analyses.
By the end of the 19th century, the discoveries of medical pioneers such as Louis Pasteur and Robert Koch had led us into the era of modern medicine. They understood disease to be caused by some physical disturbance rather than evil spirits or an imbalance of the humours.
This was not just an advance for those suffering from illnesses that wiped out whole townships, but it also spelled progress for the insane. Neurologists began to show that brain diseases such as syphilis or tumors could produce bizarre changes in personality. Even if treatments were slow to come, the insane could be viewed with more compassion, as suffering actual brain damage rather than demonic possession. But what of those cases, where a physical disturbance could not be found? Even worse, what about those cases where a physical problem seemed impossible?
Take, for example, that prototypical 19th-century illness, hysteria. Hysterical patients displayed puzzling symptoms, such as a numbness of the hand that stopped abruptly at the wrist, which did not make sense with the wiring of the nervous system. Enter Sigmund Freud. Freud was trained as a neurologist and studied with the great French neurologist Jean-Martin Charcot. Charcot attributed hysterical symptoms to some undefined inflammation of the nerves — this was very much a physical model of disease. Freud made the monumental leap that neuroses could be caused by psychic distress.
This incredible notion that feelings and ideas could produce illness created a new category of disorders defined as mental illness that is distinct from diseases that damage the brain. In the process, Freud described the unconscious, a powerful inner world of drives and conflicts that could explain everything from slips of the tongue to hysterical paralysis. Freud's general concepts of neurosis and the unconscious were firmly embedded in both medical and popular culture. But by the s, some of the specifics of his theory, such as the infamous idea that all neurosis was rooted in sexual repression, were wearing thin.
While medicine had been reaping the benefits of the scientific method, no one had put psychoanalysis to the test. Yet that was the dominant form of therapy. Clearly, psychiatry was heading for a crisis. Enter a young psychoanalyst named Aaron Timothy Beck. One afternoon, Beck was treating a young woman who was having difficulties with men. As she lay on the couch describing her sexual encounters, Beck asked her: "How does talking about this make you feel?
Follow the Author
Nevertheless, he followed his curiosity, and the patient replied that she felt anxious. Beck proposed that she felt anxious because she expected disapproval of her sexual desires. Breaking another cardinal rule of psychoanalysis, he asked the patient to sit up and face him, so she could see from his expression that there was no disapproval. At this point, the patient broke with expectations and confessed: "No, I don't think you're disapproving; I think I'm boring you. He realized that if patients were concerned with what their therapists think, there was little use in waiting for unconscious thoughts to bubble up.
He abandoned probing for unconscious sexual conflicts and began focusing on the patterns of thoughts that made his patients depressed or anxious. Thus was born a new type of treatment to become known as cognitive therapy. Like Charcot and Freud, Beck started his career as a neurologist. During his neurology residency he was required to train for six months in psychiatry, which he initially thought was a distraction. But he quickly became fascinated by psychoanalysis as a tool to probe the workings of the mind.
Beck switched fields and became a Freudian psychoanalyst. Many scientists were skeptical about the effectiveness of psychoanalysis, so Beck set out to confirm the tenets of the psychoanalytic theory through research. His initial focus was on depression. According to psychoanalytic theory, depression can be caused by unconscious anger towards another person.
Because such outward hostility is unacceptable, depressed patients direct the anger toward themselves which results in low self-esteem. Since Freud argued that dreams are the "Royal Road to the Unconscious," Beck decided to search for hostility in the dreams of depressed patients. What struck him most was not hostility but that depressed patients saw themselves in their dreams exactly as they did in their waking hours: as hopeless and helpless. He also noticed that his depressed patients had "automatic thoughts" that colored innocuous events with dark meaning.
These negative interpretations in many cases could precipitate a depression. For example, take a man whose wife leaves in the morning without giving him the customary kiss. He might fear that she does not love him anymore and begin accumulating other pieces of neutral data to support his dismal conclusion, becoming more and more distraught.
A cognitive therapist will ask the patient to recount the morning conversation he had with his wife.
During this process he recalls that she told him she was in a hurry to make an early meeting at the office. Beck helped his patients identify these subtle but powerful automatic thoughts, question the unhelpful and destructive ones and replace them with more realistic thoughts. Thus, the tenet of cognitive therapy is that our cognition how we think determines our feelings and behavior.
In contrast to the years of undirected exploration of the unconscious in psychoanalysis, cognitive therapy focuses on the preconscious that is not quite in awareness but is accessible. Within weeks, this therapy provides patients with the skills to recognize negative, self-defeating thoughts when they occur and to step back from them, effecting a slow but steady improvement in mood and function. In , Beck conducted the first rigorous clinical trial of any type of psychotherapy in depression. He compared the effectiveness of cognitive therapy to imipramine the best antidepressant at the time.
Twelve weeks of cognitive therapy proved superior to pharmacotherapy, and its benefits persisted a year later. These findings established cognitive therapy as a powerful and effective intervention for depression and set a standard for evaluating the clinical benefits of any type of psychotherapy. When Beck recognized the need for sensitive rating instruments, he developed the Beck Depression Inventory which became one of the most widely used measures of depression symptoms in the world. Beck and his trainees went on to adapt cognitive therapy for a variety of psychiatric disorders and showed that it is effective therapy for generalized anxiety, panic disorders, post-traumatic stress disorder, phobias, and bulimia.
Extensive studies of the conceptual taxonomies of clinicians have found that they do not match those of DSM or of ICD in structure [ , , , , , , ]. Usually included are mood disorders excluding bipolar and cyclothymic , anxiety disorders, substance abuse disorders, eating disorders, externalizing childhood disorders, developmental disabilities, schizophrenia, and dependent and paranoid personality disorders [ ]. Experienced clinicians group together anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, as well as substance dependence with substance abuse, conduct disorder with oppositional defiant disorder, panic disorder with phobias and GAD, and mental retardation with autism [ ].
Psychiatrists have been found to prefer fewer categories, and with flexible ICDtype guidance rather than strict criteria-based diagnoses [ ]. The same preference for ICDtype flexible guidelines over DSMlike strict criteria has been found among psychologists [ ]. Such categories are not formal diagnoses. The HiTOP consortium [ 49 ] has revealed a transdiagnostic, empirically-derived, hierarchical dimensional model of classification of mental disorders.
A nascent micro classification system of PMCs is already in clinical use and is taught in several postgraduate clinical programs [ , ]. However, this listing is ad hoc, idiosyncratic, and unlikely in such an embryonic state to provide codings that would achieve broad acceptance. An effort by teams of clinicians and researchers corresponding to some meaningful fraction of the effort devoted to the development of the DSMs, is required to construct a systematic, exhaustive, and evidence-based taxonomy of CPPs in the form of distinct, identifiable PMCs.
However, in the interim, a proposed classification and coding system is presented in Appendix B. For example, the PMCs illustrated in Fig. Such a framework can systematically summarize and stimulate the currently disparate streams of research on assessment, case formulation, and therapeutic intervention in clinical psychology. For example, instead of assessing the efficacy of a particular Cognitive Therapy package in helping a diagnostically uniform but psychologically heterogeneous sample of sad people, subjects could be selected based upon identification, through an assessment and case formulation, of the presence or functioning of PMC 2.
Such would be infinitely more logical, and just as methodologically sound in a randomized controlled trial. Only the nature and level of causal elements within their formulated PMCs vary. For example, the movement toward integration of models of psychotherapy [ , ], has frequently pointed to cyclic processes between internal psychodynamic states and external cognitive-behavioral events [ ]. Short-term existential interventions have been explained as ways to break vicious circles of emotion [ ]. Family systems theorists have long emphasised cyclical formulations with psychodynamic elements [ ].
Nor is defining the essence of a clinical problem in terms of vicious circles or PMCs particular to clinical psychology. It has been proposed or enacted within forensic psychology [ , ], organizational psychology [ ], and crossculturally [ ]. Much of medicine describes vicious circles of organic pathology fever, organ failure, etc.
Therefore, theorists and researchers from many theoretical orientations are able to contribute, and to utilize, the new taxonomy, only providing that the focus is on problem maintenance, and the relevant PMCs and implied treatments are evidence-based. Its only comparative drawback is its relative complexity. Life is complex.
People are complex. And DSM has over simplified them. It simply lists discovered cyclic causal sequences. Whether they are viewed as desirable or undesirable is a value judgement. They do not merely work to cheer up a sad person or to relax an anxious person. The PMC taxonomy lists problematic ongoing underlying mechanisms or processes that must be addressed. A PMC taxonomy defines and lists clinical psychological problems as perpetuating cyclic processes. This simple intuitive concept at once confers an essence to CPPs, that is parsimonious one criterion, not seven or eight , categorical not dimensional, and has intrinsic clinical utility and treatment-relevance.
The identification of a depression PMC is informative. It tells us much about the person involved. Anxiety PMCs are historically invariant. We know of phobic PMCs from Roman times. Such problems are discrete. There are definable boundaries. They are uniform. People trapped in eating problem PMCs have many similarities. They are, by definition, immutable.
They rarely spontaneously remit. There is one necessary feature a full causal PMC. They are inherent ; there is a sameness under the symptoms. But, given the cyclic nature of scientific research and theory construction, the taxonomy can improve the focus and organisation of research efforts, and the reporting and assemblage of research results. Communicability will be enhanced not only among clinical psychologists. The medical model and PMC theory are compatible and complementary. Already, clinical psychologists accept referrals of diagnosed mental disorders, understand what is meant, do their own functional analyses and case formulations, and often feed these back to the psychiatric or physician referrer, who understands them perfectly well, and may even appreciate a PMC code summary of this formulation.
A taxonomy of PMCs can increase the reliability of case formulation as well as its communicability through standardization of nomenclature. A PMC-based model is also very comprehensible and communicable to clients. Quite complex graphically presented individual case formulations can be simplified, standardized, and described by separating out the individual PMCs involved. A person who is offered a PMC-based case formulation of their CPP with its explained mechanisms, treatment implications, openings for self-help, and overlap with normality is likely to find this more comprehensible, more optimistic, more empowering, and less stigmatizing than being conferred with a diagnosis of a psychopathology or mental disorder.
Comorbidity is no longer a theoretical quandary. However, as the primary criterion for any clinical taxonomy is its treatment-relevance [ 21 , 31 , 99 , ], the real test of PMC theory is whether it results in more treatment success. As research around the world has been so completely dominated by the mental disorder model, it is hard to find exceptions in which problem assessment and assessment of improvement are based on a case formulation rather than a diagnosis, let alone comparisons of the two approaches with the same population.
Among the few that have been undertaken, the results are clear. This has been true for behavioural therapies based on functional analyses, and then more recently CBT based on case conceptualizations. With behavioural interventions firstly, Carr and Durand [ ] found that the treatment of disruptive behaviour needed to depend on the function it was serving its maintainer — whether the behaviour serves an escape function or an attention-seeking function.
Durand and Crimmins [ ] found that the successful treatment of self-injurious behaviour also depended upon analysis and discrimination as to whether it was maintained by an attention-getting motivation, or was escape-maintained, tangibly-maintained, or sensory-maintained. Schneider and Bryne [ ] produced a significantly greater boost in observed social skills and cooperative play among children with various behaviour problems when treatment was individualized rather than standardized. In a post hoc analysis, Eifert et al. Iwata et al. For example, Jacobson et al. When Litt et al.
In a similar vein, when the reasons for drug use are analysed so that brief coping skills interventions can be matched to personality-specific motives PMCs for the substance abuse, treatment efficacy is improved [ ]. Persons et al. In one of the few direct comparison treatment studies, Weisz et al.
Fairburn et al. So, when they added four more maintaining mechanisms to their model e. So, when case formulations are used to guide treatment rather than clumsy, theory-bereft diagnoses, indications to date are that the subsequent tailored treatments improve our effectiveness. The next step appears to be to improve the reliability, standardization, and validity of case formulation and treatment selection by basing therapeutic trials and outcome studies on PMC-defined rather than DSM-diagnosed experimental groups.
It is proposed that the next logical step in the scientific development of the discipline of clinical psychology is the formation and dissemination of a taxonomy of CPPs based on its own conceptual scheme and operating primarily at a psychological level. The independent conceptual, research, and clinical development of the profession has advanced sufficiently for this critical step. The development of the various iterations of the DSM has involved the assignment and coordination of vast numbers of contributors, panels, committees, and task forces.
For example, three of the five volumes of the DSM-IV Sourcebook [ ] alone commissioned reviews of the literature on psychological disorders. However, these reviews were based on research that was conducted largely within the DSM framework, so much circular reasoning occurred, and alternative approaches or conceptualizations were not considered [ 31 ]. It is a very leaky virtuous circle. It is an assumption — a convention — constructed for pragmatic, sociological, or political reasons, just as the disease model of alcohol problems and the chemical imbalance theory of depression were. In fact, some highly deleterious effects on self-esteem, self-efficacy, confidence in treatment, and expectation of recovery have ensued [ ].
Ironically, a diagnosis can thus become a self-fulfilling prophecy, and cause negative feelings, thoughts, or behaviour via vicious circles, such as through instilling shame or hopelessness [ 14 ] p. There is psychological-level evidence for the existence and operation of every one of these causal links. In fact such evidence led to the development of this model. It is an evidence-based model of a CPP, which in turn directly implies therapy choice.
The proposed new taxonomy of CPPs is therefore theory-based, treatment-relevant, evidence-informed, and pragmatic. Much research required for its development has already been undertaken. It is now a matter of framing the results e. The independence and standing of the discipline and profession may then be restored, and, more importantly, the millions of people experiencing crippling CPPs may be offered more therapeutically relevant, less stigmatising, more empowering, more evidence-based, and more comprehensible, reliable, and systematic formulations of their problems. Many uncertainties will remain despite such a clarifying taxonomy.
A PMC taxonomy can at least clarify the conceptual issues, and guide research to address the therapeutic issues.
SDT's Top-Down Approach
Ellis B. Essentialism and natural kinds. In: Psillos S, Curd M, editors. The Routledge companion to philosophy of science. London: Routledge; Glennan S. Kuhn TS. The structure of scientific revolutions. Chicago: University of Chicago Press; Conceptual foundations of the transdiagnostic approach to CBT. J Cogn Psychother. Science and behavior: an introduction to methods and research.
New Jersey: Prentice-Hall; Thase ME. Major depressive disorder. In: Andrasik F, editor. Comprehensive handbook of personality and psychopatheology: Vol. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley; Am J Addict. Haslam N, Ernst D. Essentialist beliefs about mental disorders. J Soc Clin Psychol. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. Arlington: American Psychiatric Association; American Psychological Association. Washington DC; Deacon BJ. The biomedical model of mental disorder: a critical analysis of its validity, utility, and effects on psychotherapy research.
Clin Psychol Rev. Frances A. Johnstone L. A straight talking introduction to psychiatric diagnosis. Lilienfeld SO. DSM centripetal and centrifugal antiscientific forces. Clin Psychol Sci Pract. Timimi S. No more psychiatric labels: why formal psychiatric diagnostic systems should be abolished. Int J Clin Health Psychol.
Position statement on the classification of behavior and experience in relation to functional psychiatric diagnoses: Time for a paradigm shift. Leicester: British Psychological Society; Kendler KS. An historical framework for psychiatric nosology. Psychol Med. Sch Psychol Q. Hyman SE. The diagnosis of mental disorders: the problem of reification. Annu Rev Clin Psychol. Decker HS.
New York: Oxford University Press; Psychiatry beyond the current paradigm. Br J Psychiatry. Can neuroscience be integrated into DSM-V? Nat Rev Neurosci. Kingdon D, Young AH. Research into putative biological mechanisms of mental disorders has been of no value to clinical psychiatry. Kupfer DJ. Chair of DSM-5 task force discusses future of mental health research. News release: American Psychiatric Association; Comorbidity: a network perspective.
Behav Brain Sci. Arch Gen Psychiatry. Comorbidity in Australia: findings of the National Survey of mental health and wellbeing. Aust N Z J Psychiatry. Diagnosis and classification of psychopathology: challenges to the current system and future directions. Annu Rev Psychol. Kim NS, Ahn W. J Exp Psychol Gen. How many different ways do patients meet the diagnostic criteria for major depressive disorder?
Compr Psychiatry. Andersson G, Ghaderi A. Overview and analysis of the behaviorist criticism of the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders DSM. Clin Psychol. Experiential avoidance and behavioral disorders: a functional dimensional approach to diagnosis and treatment. J Consult Clin Psychol. A research agenda for DSV Sussman N. Why replication matters. Prim Psychiatry. Why has it taken so long for biological psychiatry to develop clinical tests and what to do about it? Mol Psychiatry. Levels of explanation in psychiatric and substance use disorders: implications for the development of an etiologically based nosology.
What kinds of things are psychiatric disorders? Bostic JQ, Rho Y. Target-symptom psychopharmacology: between the forest and the trees. Mohamed S, Rosenheck RA. Department of Veterans Affairs: diagnostic- and symptom-guided drug selection. J Clin Psychiatry. Taylor D. Prescribing according to diagnosis: how psychiatry is different. World Psychiatry. Do mental health professionals use diagnostic classifications the way we think they do? A global survey. Research domain criteria RDoC : toward a new classification framework for research on mental disorders.
Am J Psychiatr. Sharfstein S. Big pharma and American psychiatry: the good, the bad and the ugly. Psychiatr News. Psychol Sci Public Interest. Reed GM. A paradigm shift in psychiatric classification: the hierarchical taxonomy of psychopathology HiTOP. Bieling PJ, Kuyken W. Is cognitive case formulation science or science fiction.
Carey TA, Pilgrim D. Diagnosis and formulation: what should we tell the students? Clin Psychol Psychother. Hofmann SG. Toward a cognitive-behavioral classification system for mental disorders. Behav Ther. Persons JB. The case formulation approach to cognitive-behavior therapy.
New York: Guilford Press; Rose PR. Human agency in the neurocentric age. EMBO Reports. Satel S, Lilienfeld SO. Brainwashed: the seductive appeal of mindless neuroscience. New York: Basic Books; Gold I. Reduction in psychiatry. Can J Psychiatr. Dennett DC. New York: Touchstone; The perspectives of psychiatry. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press; Haslam N. Kinds of kinds: a conceptual taxonomy of psychiatric categories.
Philos Psychiatry Psychol. Zachar P, Kendler KS. Psychiatric disorders: a conceptual taxonomy. Symptom networks and psychiatric categories. Are eating disorders culture-bound syndromes? Implications for conceptualizing their etiology. Psychol Bull. A proposal for a dimensional classification system based on the shared features of the DSM-IV anxiety and mood disorders: implications for assessment and treatment.
Psychol Assess. Carr A, McNulty M. Classification and epidemiology. The handbook of clinical psychology: an evidence-based practice approach. Models of scientific progress and the role of theory in taxonomy development: a case study of the DSM. Toward the future of psychiatric diagnosis: the seven pillars of RDoC. BMC Med. J Abnorm Psychol. The hierarchical taxonomy of psychopathology HiTOP : a dimensional alternative to traditional nosologies.
The reliability and validity of discrete and continuous measures of psychopathology: a quantitative review. Categories versus dimensions in personality and psychopathology: a quantitative review of taxometric research. The structure of psychopathology: toward an expanded quantitative empirical model. Meehl PE. Murray G. Five things you need to know about DSM. Wakefield JC. The concept of mental disorder: on the boundary between biological facts and social values. Am Psychol. Kirk SA, Kutchins H. Making us crazy: DSM — the psychiatric bible and the creation of mental disorder.
Zachar P. Psychiatric disorders are not natural kinds. Real kinds but no true taxonomy. In: Kendler R, Pamas J, editors. Philosophical issues in psychiatry. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press; Transdiagnostic networks: commentary on Nolen-Hoeksema and Watkins Perspect Psychol Sci. Kiesler DJ. Beyond the disease model of mental disorders. Westport: Praeger; Philosophical issues in the classification of psychopathology.
New York: The Guilford Press; Bracken PJ. Postmodernism and psychiatry. Current Opinion In Psychiatry. Ingleby D. Critical psychiatry: the politics of mental health. New York: Pantheon; Kendell R, Jablensky A. Distinguishing between the validity and utility of psychiatric diagnoses. Varga S. Defining mental disorder. Philos Ethics Humanit Med. Categorical versus dimensional approaches to diagnosis: methodological challenges. J Psychiatr Res. Toward a developmental psychopathology of personality disturbance: a neurobehavioral dimensional model incorporating genetic, environmental, and epigenetic factors.
In: Cicchetti D, editor. Developmental psychopathology: Maladaptation and psychopathology. Hoboken: Wiley; Bach B, First MB. Application of the ICD classification of personality disorders. BMC Psychiatry. The ICD developmental field study of reliability of diagnoses of high-burden mental disorders: results among adult patients in mental health settings in 13 countries.
Clinical utility of ICD diagnostic guidelines for high-burden mental disorders: results from mental health settings in 13 countries. ICD the importance of a science of psychiatric nosology. Lancet Psychiatry. Anxiety sensitivity and its factors in relation to generalized anxiety disorder among adolescents. J Abnorm Child Psychol. Laboratory studies and validity of psychiatric diagnosis: has there been progress? In: Barret JE, editor. The validity of psychiatric diagnosis.
New York: Raven; Problem behaviours and symptom dimensions of psychiatric disorders in adults with intellectual disabilities: an exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. Res Dev Disabil. Dispositional negativity: an integrative psychological and neurobiological perspective.
The structure of adolescent psychopathology: a symptom-level analysis. Tucker GJ. Good practice guidelines on the use of psychological formulation. The likely success of functional analysis tied to the DSM. Behav Res Ther. DSM-IV and internalizing disorders: modifications, limitations, and utility. Sch Psychol Rev. Follette WC. Introduction to the special section on the development of theoretically coherent alternatives to the DSM system. Treatment utility of assessment: a functional approach to evaluating the quality of assessment.http://vipauto93.ru/profiles/come-spiare/copiare-rubrica-da-iphone-8-a-sim.php
Books - Buy Books Online at Best Prices In India | hojirivu.tk
Clinical diagnosis, behavioral assessment, and functional analysis: examining the connection between assessment and intervention. Mental illness: comprehensive evaluation or checklist? N Engl J Med. A heuristic for developing transdiagnostic models of psychopathology: explaining multifinality and divergent trajectories.
Cicchetti D, Rogosch FA. Equifinality and multifinality in developmental psychopathology. Dev Psychopathol. Monroe SM. Modern approaches to conceptualizing and measuring human life stress. Reliability of DSM-IV anxiety and mood disorders: implications for the classification of emotional disorders. Toward a unified treatment for emotional disorders. Cognitive behavioral processes across psychological disorders: a transdiagnostic approach to research and treatment.
Oxford: Oxford University Press; Emotion regulation and psychopathology: a transdiagnostic approach to etiology and treatment. Krueger RF. The structure of common mental disorders. Rozin P, Royzman EB. Negativity bias, negativity dominance, and contagion. Personal Soc Psychol Rev. Experiential avoidance as a functional contextual concept.
Rethinking rumination. Measuring experiential avoidance: a preliminary test of a working model. Psychol Rec. Efficacy of transdiagnostic treatments: a review of published outcome studies and future research directions. The effects of psychotherapy for depression on anxiety symptoms: a meta-analysis. CBT and the future of personalized treatment: a proposal. Depress Anxiety. Integrating psychotherapy with the hierarchical taxonomy of psychopathology HiTOP. J Psychother Integr. Forbush KT, Watson D.
The structure of common and uncommon mental disorders. New dimensions in the quantitative classification of mental illness. Slade T, Watson D. Transdiagnostic factors of psychopathology and substance use disorders: a review. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. Advancing psychotherapy and evidence-based psychological interventions. Int J Methods Psychiatr Res. The conceptual development of DSM-V. Reiss D, Emde RN. Advancing DSM: dilemmas in psychiatric diagnosis. Family therapy review: preparing for comprehensive and licensing examinations. Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum; Patterson GR.
Coercive family process. Eugene: Castalia; An experimental test of the coercion model: linking theory, measurement, and intervention. Preventing antisocial behavior. New York: Guilford; Critical issues in psychotherapy: translating new ideas into practice. Thousand Oaks: Sage; Evaluation of psychotherapy: efficacy, effectiveness, and patient progress. The empirical status of empirically supported therapies: assumptions, methods, and findings. Roth A, Fonagy P, editors. What works for whom?
A critical review of psychotherapy research. Dobson D, Dobson KS. Evidence-based practice of cognitive-behavioral therapy. Davis LJ. Obsession: a history. The rise of abnormal psychology during the progressive era: reflections from an American scientific periodical. In: Plante TG, editor.
Abnormal psychology across the ages. Santa Barbara: Praeger; Tracy SW. Medicalizing alcoholism one hundred years ago. Harv Rev Psychiatry. Haynes SN. The assessment-treatment relationship and functional analysis in behavior therapy. Eur J Psychol Assess. Evolution of public attitudes about mental illness: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Acta Psychiatr Scand. Hinshaw SP. The mark of shame: stigma of mental illness and an agenda for change. Impact of a diagnosis of psychosis: user-led qualitative study. Psychiatr Bull. Kroska A, Harkness SK. Exploring the role of diagnosis in the modified labelling theory of mental health. Soc Psychol Q. Acad Med. Biogenetic explanations and public acceptance of mental illness: systematic review of population studies. World survey of mental illness stigma. J Affect Disord. Biogenetic explanations and stigma: a meta-analytic review of associations among laypeople.
Soc Sci Med. Haslam N, Kvaale EP. Biogenetic explanations of mental disorder: the mixed blessings model. Curr Dir Psychol Sci. Brooke S. Formulation in clinical psychology: past, present and future. Matching treatments to client problems not diagnostic labels: a case for paradigmatic behavior therapy. J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry. Psychotherapy for depression in adults: a meta-analysis of comparative outcome studies. Randomized trial of behavioral activation, cognitive therapy, and antidepressant medication in the prevention of relapse and recurrence in major depression.
Ougrin D. Efficacy of exposure versus cognitive therapy in anxiety disorders: systematic review and meta-analysis. A meta-analytic review of psychological treatments for social anxiety disorder. Int J Cogn Ther. Cognitive, behavioral, and psychophysiological treatment of agoraphobia: a comparative outcome investigation. Wolpe J. How indifference to individual differences has made a mockery of outcome research.
Paper presented at the 23rd annual convention of the Association for Advancement of Behavior Therapy. The derailment of behavior therapy: a tale of conceptual misdirection.
- Pdf Cognitive Psychotherapy Toward A New Millennium: Scientific Foundations And Clinical Practice.
- The Smartphone: Anatomy of an Industry;
- The Imagination.
On the value of homogeneous constructs for construct validation, theory testing, and the description of psychopathology. Deaton A, Cartwright N. Understanding and misunderstanding randomized controlled trials. Toward a unified treatment for emotional disorders — republished article. Testing the efficacy of theoretically derived improvements in the treatment of social phobia. Parkes CM. Grief as a psychological transition process of adaptation to change. Handbook of bereavement: theory, research and intervention. New York: Cambridge University Press; A review of the research on conjugal bereavement: impact on health and efficacy of intervention.
Bryant RA. Early predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder. Biol Psychiatry. Resilience to loss and chronic grief: a prospective study from pre-loss to 18 months post-loss. J Pers Soc Psychol. Greer S. Bereavement care: some clinical observations. Giese J, Mathews R. Stroebe MS, Schut H. The dual process model of coping with bereavement: rationale and description. Death Stud. Worden JW. Grief counseling and grief therapy: a handbook for the mental health practitioner. New York: Springer; Cooper R.
Complicated grief, philosophical perspectives. Complicated grief: scientific foundations for health care professionals. Prolonged grief disorder: cognitive-behavioral theory and therapy. Schut H, Stroebe MS. Interventions to enhance adaptation to bereavement. J Palliat Med. Posttraumatic stress disorder: findings from the Australian National Survey of mental health and well-being.
Posttraumatic stress disorder in the National Comorbidity Survey. Litz BT, editor. Early intervention for trauma and traumatic loss. New York: Guilford Publications; Acute postdisaster coping and adjustment. J Trauma Stress. A prospective examination of symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder in victims of non-sexual assault. J Interpers Violence. Zayfert C, Becker CB. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for PTSD.
Devilly GJ, Cotton P. Psychological debriefing and the workplace: defining a concept, controversies and guidelines for intervention. Aust Psychol. Acute stress disorder: a handbook of theory, assessment, and treatment. Trauma and chronic depression among patients with anxiety disorders. Posttraumatic stress disorder. In: Barlow DH, editor. Anxiety and its disorders: the nature and treatment of anxiety and panic. Avoidant coping style and post-traumatic stress following motor vehicle accidents.
Psychosocial sequelae of the Newcastle earthquake: III. Role of vulnerability factors in post-disaster morbidity. Kenardy J, Tan L. The role of avoidance coping in the disclosure of trauma. Behav Chang. Peritraumatic dissociation and experiential avoidance as predictors of posttraumatic stress symptomatology. A preliminary test of the role of experiential avoidance in post-event functioning. A randomized controlled trial of exposure therapy and cognitive restructuring for posttraumatic stress disorder. Effects on postassault exposure to attack-similar stimuli on long-term recovery of victims.
Experiential avoidance in civilian war survivors with current versus recovered posttraumatic stress disorder: a pilot study. The status of psychological debriefing and therapeutic interventions: in the workplace and after disasters. Rev Gen Psychol. Psychological debriefing for road traffic accident victims: three-year followup of a randomized controlled trial. Single session debriefing after psychological trauma: a meta-analysis.
Effectiveness on mental health of psychological debriefing for crisis intervention in schools. Educ Psychol Rev. In: Cochrane Collaboration, editor. Cochrane library issue 4. Oxford: Update Software; Yoman J. A primer on functional analysis. Cogn Behav Pract. Toward science-informed supervision of clinical case formulation: a training model and supervision method. Scott MJ, Sembi S. Cognitive behavior therapy treatment failures in practice: the neglected role of diagnostic inaccuracy. Behav Cogn Psychother. Cognitive therapy in practice: a case formulation approach.
New York: Norton; Bruch MH. Cognitive-behavioral case formulation. In: Bruch MH, editor. Behavior and cognitive therapy today: essays in honour of Hans J. Oxford: Elsevier Science Ltd; Design of individualized behavioral treatment programs using functional analytic clinical case models. Clark DM. A cognitive approach to panic. Ehlers A, Clark DM. A cognitive model of posttraumatic stress disorder. Oakland: New Harbinger; Salkovskis PM. Anxiety, beliefs and safety-seeking behavior. In: Salkovskis PM, editor. Frontiers of cognitive therapy. London: Guilford Press; Wells A. Cognitive therapy of anxiety disorders: a practical manual and conceptual guide.